Scientists have created Perovskite solar cells that are of low cost, efficient and can remain stable for more than 10,000 hours without loss in performance (11.2%). Perovskite is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (CaTiO3) that are being used in solar cells since 2009. They have huge potential for commercialization and can be proved as ‘the next big thing’ in a renewable energy. Perovskite has many interesting properties like superconductivity, magnetoresistance and ionic conductivity important for microelectronics.
The perovskites were proficient of producing solar cells having a maximum efficiency of 31 percent higher than the well-known commercial silicon solar technology. Even though, perovskite solar cells are easy to produce and have achieved an efficiency of over 22 percent in the lab, once they are brought outside in the real world with moisture and oxygen their have an adverse effect on solar harvesting capabilities.
To overcome these limitations, Michael Gratzel and Solaronix along with Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin at EPFL engineered a 2D/3D hybrid perovskite solar cell. This technology combines 2D perovskites with 3D forms that have the capability to absorb light across the entire visible spectrum and transport electrical charges. The 2D/3D perovskite yields efficiencies of 12.9% (carbon-based architecture), and 14.6% (standard mesoporous solar cells). It makes use of two different types of perovskites to impart two properties that are equality important for achieving long life efficiency, resistance to water and oxygen and charge transport.
The dimension of the solar panels will be 10×10 cm2 using a fully printable industrial-scale process. The main role of 2D perovskite is to act like a protective window against moisture and 3D perovskite generates the electricity. Mohammad Khaja Naseeruddin said, “The important finding in this manuscript is identifying the presence of a multi-dimensional 2D/3D interface.” We believe this will trigger many further studies…widening the prospects for perovskite photovoltaics”, he further adds. Theoretical efficiency would definitely increase after the optimization of the internal structure of the device.